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Blanche de Castille, L'Europe, Le Monde et La République

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INVERNESS CT

Logo de INVERNESS CT

Dom.
Infos
Nom : Inverness Caledonian Thistle
Entraîneur :
Inverness (en gaélique écossais : Inbhir Nis) est le centre administratif du council area du Highland, et était auparavant la capitale du comté de Inverness-shire et de l'ancienne région du Highland (ainsi que du district d'Inverness au sein de cette région). Elle est, de manière plus générale, la plus grande ville et le pôle d'attraction de toute la région des Highlands. La ville, qui a le statut de Cité, s’est autoproclamée capitale des Highlands.

Inverness est située à l’embouchure de la rivière Ness, au nord-est de l’Écosse. La ville tire son nom de sa position géographique : gaélique écossais : Inbhir Nis, signifiant embouchure de la Ness. La rivière coule depuis le Loch Ness tout proche et, en amont, depuis le canal Calédonien, qui relie le Loch Ness, le Loch Oich et le Loch Lochy.

Les landes de Culloden (en) se trouvent à proximité de la ville. Elles furent le site de la célèbre bataille qui, en 1746, mit fin au soulèvement jacobite de 1745-1746.

La position stratégique d'Inverness causa sa déchéance : les monarques écossais, les Highlanders, les Jacobites et les Anglais se disputèrent la ville, si bien qu'il ne reste plus guère aujourd'hui de bâtiments importants antérieurs au XIXe siècle.

Richie FORAN
Président : Kenny CAMERON
Fondation : 1994
Site : www.ictfc.com
Siège : Caledonian Stadium
East Longman
Inverness, IV1 1FF
Tel / Fax : (01463) 222 880 / (01463) 715 816
LE DERNIER 11
Palmarès
Coupe DE LA COMMUNAUTÉ PARLEMENTAIRE D'ÉCOSSE
2015

Lanterne rouge, Inverness surprend les Rangers
Publié le vendredi 24 février 2017 à 23:08
Billy McKay a offert d'un retourné acrobatique sa quatrième victoire de la saison à Inverness vendredi, contre les Rangers.

Caledonian Stadium

Cinq jours après leur défaite (2-1) à Dundee, les Rangers ont de nouveau chuté (2-1) à l'extérieur vendredi, cette fois sur la pelouse d'Inverness. Lanterne rouge, le club du Highland n'avait jusqu'alors gagné que trois matches. Trois minutes après que Vigurs a manqué un penalty (86e), McKay lui en a offert une quatrième en toute fin de rencontre, d'un retourné acrobatique.

Désormais onzième (sur 12), Inverness n'a plus perdu depuis trois rencontres en Championnat. Les Rangers, eux, sont mieux classés (3es) mais en méforme : leur dernière victoire remonte à près d'un mois (trois défaites, un nul). Si le Celtic et ses 73 points (sur 75 possibles) semblent intouchables, l'autre club de Glasgow pourrait voir Aberdeen, deuxième, prendre neuf points d'avance en cas de succès contre Ross County samedi.
Capacité : 7918 places
Adresse : Stadium Road
Inverness
IV1 1FF

Histoire

Une découverte a été faite en septembre 2016 sur une route d'Inverness et a révélé les restes d'une maison ronde (en) dans lesquels ont été retrouvés une pointe de flèche et des morceaux de poterie, notamment des outils en pierre ou en silex ainsi que des pipes en argile. L'ensemble remonterait à la Préhistoire et atteste d'une industrie métallurgique1.

Inverness était une place forte des Pictes. Elle est visitée en 565 par saint Colomba dans l’intention de convertir le roi picte Brude. Le roi Brude est supposé avoir vécu dans le fort de Craig Phadrig à 2,4 km à l’ouest de la ville. Le château d’Inverness aurait été construit par Malcolm Canmore après qu’il eut rasé le précédent château dans lequel Macbeth aurait tué Duncan.

Guillaume le Lion accorde quatre chartes royales à Inverness, dont une par laquelle il crée un burgh royal. Alexandre II crée en 1233 une abbaye dominicaine dont il reste peu de vestiges.

Sur le chemin de la bataille de Harlaw en 1411, Donald Lord of the Isles dévaste la ville. Seize ans plus tard, Jacques Ier convoque au château les chefs du nord et trois d’entre eux seront exécutés pour avoir revendiqué leur indépendance.

En 1562, afin de mettre un terme à l’insurrection du comte Huntly, Marie Stuart se rend à Inverness et se voit refuser l’accès au château qui appartenait alors aux factions du comte. La maison dans laquelle elle séjourna est toujours visible dans Bridge Street. La fête de Marymass fair, le samedi le plus proche du 15 août, serait pour commémorer aussi bien Marie Stuart que la Vierge Marie.

Au-delà des limites nord de la ville, Oliver Cromwell fait édifier un fort capable d’abriter 1 000 hommes ; mais à l’exception d’un bout des remparts, il fut démoli dès la Restauration. En 1715, les Jacobites occupent la forteresse royale. En 1727, le gouvernement construit le fort Georges qui tombe en 1746 entre les mains des jacobites, qui le font exploser.

Le 7 septembre 1921, le seul Cabinet ministériel du Royaume-Uni à avoir lieu hors de Londres, se réunit à Inverness, quand David Lloyd George, en vacances à Gairloch convoque une réunion de crise pour traiter de la situation en Irlande. La réunion d’Inverness servira de base au Traité anglo-irlandais.
Lieux d’intérêt et tourisme
Les rives de la Ness avec à droite le Greig Street Bridge.
La cathédrale Saint-André.
Le fleuve Ness et le château d'Inverness.

Inverness est bien reliée au reste de l'Écosse par route, par chemin de fer et par quelques liaisons aériennes, ce qui en fait un excellent point d'entrée aux Highlands. À partir d'Inverness, on accède facilement au célèbre Loch Ness. Plusieurs excursions en bateau sur le loch partent d'ailleurs d'Inverness pour aller notamment vers le château d'Urquhart.
Bateau d'excursions au débarcadère du château d'Urquhart.

Certains de ces bateaux sont équipés de sonars sophistiqués qui tentent de repérer le célèbre monstre marin qui est censé hanter le loch. L'île de Skye, le château d'Eilean Donan, les iles Hébrides extérieures et les iles Orcades (Orkney) ne sont qu'à quelques heures de route. Des services d'autobus ou des excursions sont offerts aux touristes.

Les principaux monuments d’Inverness sont le château (en), et de nombreuses églises, dont la cathédrale Saint-André. Cependant, la plus vieille église est la Old High St Stephen's Church (en), le long de la Ness. Les clochers remontent au XVIe siècle, ce qui en fait le plus vieil édifice de la ville toujours en place. Le château fut construit sur le site d’un château médiéval en 1835 et est maintenant le siège du shérif.

Les bords de la Ness, ses îles et le Bught (en) offrent d’agréables promenades, tout comme les collines boisées de Craig Phadraig et de Craig Dunain. La ville est bien pourvue en boutiques, étant la principale zone de shopping d’une zone de 26 000 km².

À proximité d'Inverness se trouve l'imposante forteresse de Fort George dont la construction s'acheva en 1769. Construite par les Anglais à la suite du soulèvement jacobite, elle n'a jamais eu à repousser d'assaillants. Un service d'autobus la relie à Inverness.
La ville aujourd’hui

Inverness s’est vu accorder le statut de Cité par la Reine en décembre 2000. Inverness est la seule ville des Highlands à posséder ce statut et seules Édimbourg, Glasgow, Dundee, Stirling et Aberdeen le possèdent en Écosse. En 2001, la population d’Inverness atteint 51 000 habitants et devrait doubler dans les 30 prochaines années2. Inverness a été désignée comme la ville d’Europe occidentale ayant la plus forte croissance, avec ses nombreux lotissements construits ces dernières années à l’ouest de la ville. Le tourisme tient une part importante dans l’économie de la ville, tout comme l’administration et le secteur de la santé. La plupart des industries traditionnelles, telles que les distilleries, ont été remplacées par le secteur de la haute technologie. Le commerce est un autre secteur majeur. Le centre commercial Eastgate (en) s’est récemment agrandi, devenant ainsi un des plus grands d’Écosse.
Rue commerciale du centre d'Inverness.

L'University of the Highlands and Islands a son siège situé dans la ville.

La ville compte deux clubs de football : le Inverness Caledonian Thistle FC et le Clachnacuddin FC (en). Bught Park (en), situé dans le centre de la ville, est le point d’arrivée du marathon du Loch Ness (en).

L'église Sainte-Marie (St. Mary Church) appartient à l'Église catholique romaine. Inverness est la seule ville majeure d'Écosse ne possédant pas de cathédrale catholique ; en effet, la communauté catholique dépend de la cathédrale Sainte-Marie-de-l'Assomption d'Aberdeen car relevant du Diocèse (catholique) d'Aberdeen. En revanche, l'Église épiscopale écossaise possède sa propre cathédrale : la cathédrale Saint-André.

Inverness accueille chaque année en septembre une des plus prestigieuses compétitions de sonneurs de cornemuse du monde3.
Transports

La gare d’Inverness permet à la ville d’être reliée à Perth, Édimbourg, Glasgow, Londres, Aberdeen, Thurso, Wick et Kyle of Lochalsh. Les voies ferrées Higland Main Line, Aberdeen-Inverness Line, Kyle of Lochalsh Line et la Far North Line se joignent à Inverness. La East Coast dessert la principale route d’Inverness à Londres (gare de King's Cross). La First ScotRail assure les liaisons en Écosse, aussi bien que la liaison nocturne en voitures-lits Caledonian Sleeper avec Londres (gare d'Euston).

L’aéroport d'Inverness est à 10 km au nord-est de la ville et dessert les grandes villes du Royaume-Uni ainsi que les îles du nord et de l’ouest de l’Écosse.

Trois routes nationales permettent de rallier Aberdeen, Perth, Elgin, Thurso et Glasgow.
Jumelage

Inverness est jumelée à :

Drapeau des États-Unis Inverness (États-Unis)
Drapeau du Canada Inverness (Canada)
Drapeau de l'Allemagne Augsbourg (Allemagne)
Drapeau de la France La Baule-Escoublac (France)
Drapeau de la France Saint-Valery-en-Caux (France)

Personnalités

Karen Gillan
Peter McWilliam
Simon Fraser
Stephen Crabb

Notes

↑ (en) « Inverness West Link: Artefacts unearthed by road works » [archive], BBC News, 14 septembre 2016.
↑ Les chiffres de la population incluent la ville et ses environs (Balloch, Culloden, Smithton et Westhill). Source : recensement 2001 [archive]
↑ The Northern Meeting Piping Competitions [archive]

Articles connexes

Géographie de l'Écosse

Liens externes

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Inverness (Écosse), sur Wikimedia Commons

Carte d'Inverness de 1716 [archive]

TAY La chouette effraie y séjourna avec ses parents durant les années 1975-1979

Ecrit du
Citoyen Tignard Yanis

_________________
Kounak le chat....

Voir le profil de l'utilisateur
Blanche DuBois, est l'un des personnages principaux de la pièce Un tramway nommé Désir (1947) de Tennessee Williams. Elle est considérée comme l'un des personnages les plus marquants du théâtre américain.

La légende de Thibaut et Blanche

Thibaut IV aura l’occasion de mettre en pratique ses acquis de Bouvines puisqu’il prendra la tête d’une croisade, en 1239. Mais en attendant, voyons son parcours de poète passionné par l’art des trouvères, et pris de passion pour une femme, et quelle femme : Blanche de Castille elle-même ! Oui, la reine Blanche de Castille, épouse du roi Louis VIII mort en 1226. Elle est devenue régente de France en attendant la majorité de son fils, le futur Louis IX, dit saint Louis. Thibaut est fasciné par la beauté de Blanche, au point que des rumeurs courent : Blanche serait enceinte de Thibaut ! La reine en est outrée : elle devra même se mettre nue devant un jury d’honneur afin de bien montrer qu’elle porte ventre plat et non point rondelet d’un fruit coupable… Ce qui ne l’empêche pas de profiter de la situation, manipulant Thibaut pour servir sa politique.

Un peu de technique

Thibaut en foire

Thibaut IV continue de chanter son amour pour Blanche, pour la femme en général, fréquente les scènes des foires de Champagne, aime se mêler aux jongleurs, aux ménestrels. Silence… La foire chaude de la saint Jean à Troyes vient de s’ouvrir en cette année 1230. Ecoutons Thibaut IV de Champagne, dit Le Chansonnier, qui s’accompagne à la harpe, pendant qu’en son cœur soupire peut-être la dame de ses pensées… Chacune des strophe de la chanson de Thibaut est un neuvain, elle comporte neuf vers assonancés de cette façon : ABBACCBDD

La chanson de Thibaut en langue d’oil

Dame, quant je devant vos fui

Et je vos vi premièrement,

Mes cuers aloit si tressaillant

Qu’il vos remest quant je m’esmui.

Lors fu menés sanz raençon

En la douce chartre en prison,

Dont li piler sont de talent

Et li huis sont de biau vëoir

Et li anel dou bon espoir.

Plaisir de lire

La chanson de Thibaut en français

Dame quand je fus devant vous

La première fois que je vous vis,

Mon cœur allait si bondissant

Qu’il vous resta quand je m’en fus.

Alors il fut mené sans rançon

Captif dans la douce prison

Dont les piliers sont de désir,

Les portes de belle vision

Et les anneaux de bon espoir.

hibaut de Champagne, prince et poète

Thibaut de Champagne (1201 – 1253), ne serait-ce pas le fils de Marie de Champagne, le petit-fils d’Aliénor d’Aquitaine, l’arrière-arrière-petit-fils de Guillaume IX le magnifique ? Eh bien si, on ne peut rien vous cacher ! Avec une telle ascendance, que peut-on attendre de ce Thibaut de Champagne ? Des poèmes bien sûr, mais pas seulement…

Une anecdote

Thibaut, 13 ans, à Bouvines !

Dimanche 27 juillet 1214. Près du petit village de Bouvines dans le nord, une bataille est en train de se dérouler. Le roi de France Philippe Auguste y prend part avec plusieurs milliers de chevaliers qui attaquent Anglais, Germains, Flamands et les vainquent en quelque heures. Parmi les combattants proches de Philippe-Auguste, avez-vous remarqué ce jeune garçon qui manie déjà l’épée avec une redoutable dextérité ? Eh bien il s’agit de Thibaut IV de Champagne, treize ans, âge qui le situerait aujourd’hui plutôt dans une classe de cinquième. Autre temps, autres mœurs… Philippe-Auguste, son parrain, l’a invité à participer à cette bataille, qui va quand même faire des milliers de morts, afin qu’il effectue en quelque sorte un stage de formation accélérée en chevalerie.

AINSI

Blanche de Castille, née le 4 mars 1188 à Palencia, en Castille, et morte le 27 novembre 1252 à Melun, reine de France, est la fille d'Alphonse VIII de Castille et d'Aliénor d'Angleterre, elle-même fille d'Aliénor d'Aquitaine et d'Henri II Plantagenêt : elle est donc nièce du roi Jean sans Terre.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ei3Xq-b52BQ
Fille de Alphonse VIII de Castille et de Aliénor d'Angleterre, petite-fille de la fameuse Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Blanche de Castille est née le 4 mars 1188 à Palencia dans une famille nombreuse qui connaîtra la perte de certains enfants. Elle naît dans une famille heureuse et grandit au sein d'une cour joyeuse et animée, la plus cultivée d'Europe. Sa mère dit-on, était pieuse, généreuse, droite, belle, prudente et cultivée. Son père était un guerrier courageux et fin politique. Dès son enfance, on lui fait découvrir les arts et la poésie. On lui a sûrement appris le latin, son métier de reine et la littérature[réf. nécessaire].

Selon la volonté de sa grand-mère Aliénor d'Aquitaine, et pour sceller la paix entre la France et l'Angleterre, l'une de ses petites-filles devait épouser le prince Louis, fils et héritier du roi Philippe Auguste. Durant l'hiver de 1199-1200, Aliénor, quoique octogénaire, se rend donc à la cour de Castille, où elle choisit Blanche plutôt que sa sœur Urraca. En avril 1200, Blanche et sa grand-mère arrivent à Bordeaux, escortées d'une nombreuse députation espagnole.

Elles se rendent ensuite en Normandie auprès de leur fils et oncle Jean sans Terre, et de Philippe Auguste, puis au château de Boutavent, résidence de Jean sans terre. Par le traité du Goulet, Jean sans terre cède le Vexin, le comté d’Évreux jusqu'au Neubourg et Danville. Le mariage ne peut avoir lieu sur le domaine du roi de France car, à la suite des démêlés matrimoniaux de Philippe Auguste, le pape Innocent III a frappé d'interdit le royaume de France. Le mariage est donc célébré le 23 mai 1200 en Normandie, alors sous domination anglaise, en l'église de Port-Mort. En l'absence des deux rois, la cérémonie est présidée par l'archevêque de Bordeaux. Blanche a douze ans et Louis treize ans.

Elle donne au roi douze enfants dont des jumeaux . Elle donne naissance à de nombreux fils, parmi lesquels le futur saint Louis, ce qui efface les attentes d'héritier mâle lors des règnes précédents de Louis VII et Philippe Auguste. Cette nombreuse descendance, couplée avec son esprit et sa grande piété, font d'elle une reine très appréciée. Cinq de ses enfants seulement atteignent l'âge adulte, quatre meurent durant l'adolescence et les autres en bas âge.


_________________
Kounak le chat....

Voir le profil de l'utilisateur
Kim Hunter dans Un tramway nommé Désir, Oscar du Meilleur Second Rôle 1952...

Stella Kowalski, née DuBois, est un personnage de fiction de la pièce Un tramway nommé Désir (A Streetcar Named Desire) de Tennessee Williams.

Histoire du personnage
Stella — comme sa sœur Blanche — est issue d'une famille aristocratique rattachée à la plantation "Belle-Rêve" où elle a grandi. Alors que Blanche y demeure, Stella s'installe dans le Vieux carré, quartier alors populaire de La Nouvelle-Orléans où elle rencontre et épouse Stanley Kowalski, dont elle tombe enceinte.

Lorsque sa sœur, qui a dû hypothéquer la plantation familiale, se réfugie chez elle et Stanley, celui-ci (qui a l'habitude des bars et du poker entre amis) supporte peu les manières distinguées de Blanche. Un soir d'ivresse, il va même jusqu'à la violer — ce que ne croira jamais Stella, qui envoie finalement sa sœur en hôpital psychiatrique.

À la fin du film, il semblerait qu'elle choisisse de fuir avec son enfant, mais le doute subsiste : restera-t-elle avec Stanley ?
Actrices ayant joué le rôle de Stella Kowalski

Kim Hunter : A Streetcar Named Desire de Elia Kazan (1951)
Beverly D'Angelo : A Streetcar Named Desire (TV) de John Erman (1984)
Diane Lane : A Streetcar Named Desire (TV) de Glenn Jordan (1995)
Elizabeth Futral : A Streetcar Named Desire (TV) de Kirk Browning (1998)

Voir aussi

Stanley Kowalski
Blanche DuBois
Tennessee Williams

DONC

Janet Cole de son nom d'artiste, Kim Hunter est une actrice américaine née le 12 novembre 1922 à Détroit et décédée le 11 septembre 2002 à New York.

Elle est connue pour son rôle du Dr. Zira dans la série de films La Planète des singes et pour celui de Stella Kowalski dans Un tramway nommé Désir...

Biographie

Née à Détroit mais élevée en Floride, Kim Hunter étudie à l'Actors Studio et fait ses débuts sur les planches de Miami en novembre 1939 dans Penny Wise. Remarquée par des producteurs, elle signe un contrat avec David O. Selznick et tourne son premier film en 1943 (La Septième Victime de Mark Robson). La même année elle partage l'affiche avec Ginger Rogers de Tender Comrade d'Edward Dmytryk, dont le récit de femmes vivant en communauté pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale lui vaut d'être suspectée de sympathies communistes. Elle continue à tourner quelques films mais le maccarthysme la tient éloignée d'Hollywood et la fait se concentrer sur sa carrière théâtrale.

En 1947, elle forme avec Marlon Brando le couple déchiré et passionné d'Un tramway nommé Désir sur la scène de Broadway, couple qu'ils recréent en 1951 pour les besoins du grand écran dans l'adaptation d'Elia Kazan et qui permet à Kim Hunter d'obtenir l'Oscar du Meilleur Second Rôle l'année suivante. Sa carrière cinématographique ne connaîtra plus un tel succès bien qu'elle obtienne en 1968 l'un des rôles principaux de La Planète des singes (Franklin J. Schaffner). Elle jouera dans deux de ses suites : Le Secret de la planète des singes et Les Évadés de la planète des singes. Elle continue tout de même à jouer dans quelques longs métrages mais travaille surtout pour la télévision et le théâtre. Elle apparaît notamment en 1997 dans Minuit dans le jardin du bien et du mal de Clint Eastwood.

Kim Hunter s'éteint le 11 septembre 2002 à l'âge de 79 ans d'une crise cardiaque dans son appartement de Greenwich Village à New York.
Filmographie
Actrice
Au cinéma

1943 : Tender Comrade d'Edward Dmytryk : Doris Dumbrowski
1943 : La Septième Victime (The Seventh Victim) de Mark Robson : Mary Gibson
1944 : L'Etrange Mariage de William Castle : Millie Baxter
1946 : Une question de vie ou de mort (A Matter of Life and Death) de Michael Powell et Emeric Pressburger : June
1951 : Un tramway nommé Désir (A Streetcar Named Desire) d'Elia Kazan : Stella Kowalski
1952 : Tout peut arriver (Anything Can Happen) de George Seaton : Helen Watson
1952 : Bas les masques (Deadline U.S.A.) de Richard Brooks : Nora Hutcheson
1956 : Au cœur de la tempête (Storm center) de Daniel Taradash : Martha Lockridge
1957 : Mon père, cet étranger (The Young Stranger) de John Frankenheimer : Helen Ditmar
1964 : Lilith de Robert Rossen : Dr. Bea Brice
1968 : La Planète des singes (Planet of the Apes) de Franklin J. Schaffner : Dr Zira
1968 : The Swimmer de Frank Perry : Betty Graham
1970 : Le Secret de la planète des singes (Beneath the Planet of the Apes) de Ted Post : Dr Zira
1971 : Les Évadés de la planète des singes (Escape from the Planet of the Apes) de Don Taylor : Dr Zira
1998 : Minuit dans le jardin du bien et du mal (Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil ) de Clint Eastwood : Betty Harty
2000 : Sonia Horowitz, l'insoumise (A Price Above Rubies) de Boaz Yakin : Rebbitzn

À la télévision

1971 : Columbo : Plein Cadre (Suitable for Framing) (série télévisée) : Edna Matthews
1993 : La Loi de Los Angeles - Saison 8 - Série télévisée - Épisode : 22… Mme Schoen
Arabesque - Saison 7 - Série télévisée - Épisode : 1 l'arroseur arrosé… Beatrice Vitello
1973 : "Mission Impossible : Saison 7 - Épisode 14 : Vaudou (Incarnate)

Coproductrice

Party Crasher: My Bloody Birthday (2000) (coproducteur)

Doublage français

Arlette Thomas dans :
La Planète des singes
Le Secret de la planète des singes
Les Évadés de la planète des singes
La Bataille de la planète des singes (image d'archive)

Mony Dalmès dans Un tramway nommé Désir

Lita Recio dans Bas les masques

ARCHIVE DE
TAY
La chouette effraie

_________________
Kounak le chat....

Voir le profil de l'utilisateur
Blanche DuBois
Personnage de fiction apparaissant dans
Un tramway nommé Désir.
Portrait de Vivien Leigh dans Un tramway nommé Désir en 1951
Sexe Féminin
Activité Enseignante d'anglais
Famille Stella Kowalski (sœur), Stanley Kowalski (beau-frère), Allan Grey (mari, décédé)
Créé par Tennessee Williams
Interprété par Jessica Tandy (au théâtre)
Vivien Leigh (au théâtre et au cinéma)
Bibi Andersson (à la télévision)
Jessica Lange (à la télévision)
Cate Blanchett (au théâtre)
Isabelle Huppert (au théâtre)
Gillian Anderson (au théâtre)
Films Un tramway nommé Désir
Pièces Un tramway nommé Désir
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

Blanche DuBois est l'un des personnages principaux de la pièce Un tramway nommé Désir (1947) de Tennessee Williams. Elle est considérée comme l'un des personnages les plus marquants du théâtre américain1,2,3.

Jessica Tandy a reçu un Tony Award pour son rôle dans la pièce en 1948. Le personnage a aussi été interprété sur scène par Vivien Leigh, dans une mise en scène de son mari Laurence Olivier. Elle joue le même personnage dans l'adaptation au cinéma réalisée par Elia Kazan en 1951. Vivien Leigh reçoit la même année l'Oscar de la meilleure actrice pour le rôle de Blanche DuBois, ainsi que le British Academy Film Award de la meilleure actrice dans un rôle principal, le Golden Globe de la meilleure actrice dans un film dramatique, ou encore la Coupe Volpi pour la meilleure interprétation féminine.

Son rôle a aussi été créé par Renée Fleming dans l'opéra d'André Previn en 1995.
Dans la pièce

Dans la pièce, Blanche, aristocrate élégante et aérienne, arrive de Laurel (Mississippi) pour aller voir sa jeune sœur Stella Kowalski à La Nouvelle-Orléans. Elle est horrifiée de voir que Stella vit dans un quartier populaire, dans lequel son mari Stanley Kowalski passe son temps à boire et à jouer au poker avec ses amis.

Elle reste néanmoins auprès de sa sœur, et flirte même avec Mitch, un ami de Stanley un peu plus sensible que les autres. Elle lui révèle même qu'en fait, elle a été jetée dehors de la propriété familiale de "Belle Reve" pour n'avoir pas pu en payer les hypothèques. Après la mort de son époux Allan Grey, sa santé mentale n'a fait que décliner, et elle est au bord de la folie. La violence bestiale de son beau-frère ne fera que l'y précipiter plus vite.
Notes

↑ John Gassner,Edward Quinn, The Reader's Encyclopedia of World Drama, Courier Dover Publications, 2002, p. 920.
↑ Juan Zhao, A Comparison of Tennessee Williams and Anton Chekhov [archive], Studies in Literature and Language, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2010, p. 35-38
↑ A Fragile Flower Rooted to the Earth [archive], The New York Times, 3 décembre 2009.

Vivien Leigh

_________________
Kounak le chat....

Voir le profil de l'utilisateur
Inverness (Listeni/ɪnvərˈnɛs/; from the Scottish Gaelic: Inbhir Nis [iɲɪɾʲˈniʃ], meaning "Mouth of the River Ness") is a city in the Scottish Highlands. It is the administrative centre for the Highland council area,[2] and is regarded as the capital of the Highlands. Inverness lies near two important battle sites: the 11th-century battle of Blàr nam Fèinne against Norway which took place on The Aird and the 18th-century Battle of Culloden which took place on Culloden Moor.[3] It is the northernmost city in the United Kingdom and lies within the Great Glen (Gleann Mòr) at its north-eastern extremity where the River Ness enters the Moray Firth. At the latest, a settlement was established by the 6th century with the first royal charter being granted by Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim (King David I) in the 12th century. The Gaelic king Mac Bethad Mac Findláich (MacBeth) whose 11th-century murder of King Duncan was immortalised in Shakespeare's play Macbeth, held a castle within the city where he ruled as Mormaer of Moray and Ross.[4]

The population of Inverness grew from 40,949 in 2001 to 46,870 in 2012. The Greater Inverness area, including Culloden and Westhill, had a population of 59,910 in 2012.[5] Inverness is one of Europe's fastest growing cities,[6] with a quarter of the Highland population living in or around it,[7] and is ranked fifth out of 189 British cities for its quality of life, the highest of any Scottish city.[8] In the recent past, Inverness has experienced rapid economic growth: between 1998 and 2008, Inverness and the rest of the central Highlands showed the largest growth of average economic productivity per person in Scotland and the second greatest growth in the United Kingdom as a whole, with an increase of 86%.[9] Inverness is twinned with one German city, Augsburg, and two French towns, La Baule and Saint-Valery-en-Caux.[10]

Inverness College is the main campus for the University of the Highlands and Islands.[11] With around 8,500 students, Inverness College hosts around a quarter of all the University of the Highlands and Islands' students, and 30% of those studying to degree level.[12]

In 2014, a survey by a property website described Inverness as the happiest place in Scotland and the second happiest in the UK.[13] Inverness was again found to be the happiest place in Scotland by a new study conducted in 2015.[14]

Inverness was one of the chief strongholds of the Picts, and in CE 565 was visited by St Columba with the intention of converting the Pictish king Brude, who is supposed to have resided in the vitrified fort on Craig Phadrig,[15] on the western edge of the city. A 93 oz (2.9 kg) silver chain dating to 500–800 was found just to the south of Torvean in 1983.[16] A church or a monk's cell is thought to have been established by early Celtic monks on St Michael's Mount, a mound close to the river, now the site of the Old High Church[17] and graveyard. The castle is said to have been built by Máel Coluim III (Malcolm III) of Scotland, after he had razed to the ground the castle in which Mac Bethad mac Findláich (Macbeth) had, according to much later tradition, murdered Máel Coluim's father Donnchad (Duncan I), and which stood on a hill around 1 km to the north-east.

The strategic location of Inverness has led to many conflicts in the area. Reputedly there was a battle in the early 11th century between King Malcolm and Thorfinn of Norway at Blar Nam Feinne, to the southwest of the city.[18]

Inverness had four traditional fairs, including Legavrik or "Leth-Gheamhradh", meaning midwinter, and Faoilleach. William the Lion (d. 1214) granted Inverness four charters, by one of which it was created a royal burgh. Of the Dominican friary founded by Alexander III in 1233, only one pillar and a worn knight's effigy survive in a secluded graveyard near the town centre.

Medieval Inverness suffered regular raids from the Western Isles, particularly by the MacDonald Lords of the Isles in the fifteenth century. In 1187 one Domhnall Bán (Donald Ban) led islanders in a battle at Torvean against men from Inverness Castle led by the governor's son, Donnchadh Mac An Toisich (Duncan Mackintosh).[19] Both leaders were killed in the battle, Donald Ban is said to have been buried in a large cairn near the river, close to where the silver chain was found.[20] Local tradition says that the citizens fought off the Clan Donald in 1340 at the Battle of Blairnacoi on Drumderfit Hill, north of Inverness across the Beauly Firth.[21] On his way to the Battle of Harlaw in 1411, Donald of Islay harried the city, and sixteen years later James I held a parliament in the castle to which the northern chieftains were summoned, of whom three were arrested for defying the king's command. Clan Munro defeated Clan Mackintosh in 1454 at the Battle of Clachnaharry just west of the city.[22] Clan Donald and their allies stormed the castle during the Raid on Ross in 1491.
Engraving of Inverness from A Tour in Scotland by Thomas Pennant, 1771.

In 1562, during the progress undertaken to suppress Huntly's insurrection, Mary, Queen of Scots, was denied admittance into Inverness Castle by the governor, who belonged to the earl's faction, and whom she afterwards caused to be hanged. The Clan Munro and Clan Fraser of Lovat took the castle for her.[23] The house in which she lived meanwhile stood in Bridge Street until the 1970s, when it was demolished to make way for the second Bridge Street development.

Beyond the then northern limits of the town, Oliver Cromwell built a citadel capable of accommodating 1,000 men, but with the exception of a portion of the ramparts it was demolished at the Restoration. The only surviving modern remnant is a clock tower.

Inverness played a role in the first Jacobite rising in 1689. In early May, it was besieged by a contingent of Jacobites led by MacDonell of Keppoch. The town was actually rescued by Viscount Dundee, the overall Jacobite commander, when he arrived with the main Jacobite army, although he required Inverness to profess loyalty to King James VII.[24]

In 1715 the Jacobites occupied the royal fortress as a barracks. In 1727 the government built the first Fort George here, but in 1746 it surrendered to the Jacobites and they blew it up.[25]

Culloden Moor lies nearby, and was the site of the Battle of Culloden in 1746, which ended the Jacobite Rising of 1745–1746.

On 7 September 1921, the first British Cabinet meeting to be held outside London took place in the Town House, when David Lloyd George, on holiday in Gairloch, called an emergency meeting to discuss the situation in Ireland. The Inverness Formula composed at this meeting was the basis of the Anglo-Irish Treaty.
Toponymy

Inverness and its immediate hinterland have a large number of originally Gaelic place names as the area was solidly Gaelic-speaking until the late 19th century.[26]
Inverness Castle
Placename Original Gaelic Meaning
Abertarff Obar Thairbh Mouth of the Bull River
Aldourie Allt Dobhraig River of the Water
Allanfearn An t-Àilean Feàrna The Alder Meadow
Ballifeary Baile na Faire The Guard's Farm
Balloch Baile an Locha Township near the loch
Balmore Baile Mòr The Big Township
Balnafettack Baile nam Feadag Farm of the Plovers
Balvonie Bhaile a' Mhonaidh Village on the hill
Balvraid Baile a' Bhràghaid Township of the Brae
Beauly Firth Poll an Ròid Bay of the Cross
Ben Wyvis Beinn Uais Mount Terror
Bogbain Bog Ban The White Marsh
Bunchrew Bun Chraoibh Foot of the Tree
Carnarc Càrn Airc The Sea Stone
Castle Heather Caisteal Leathoir Castle on the Slope
Charleston Baile Theàrlaich Tearlach's Town
Clachnaharry Clach na h-Aithrigh Stone of Repentance
Craggie Cragaidh Rocky Place
Craig Dunain Creag Dùn Eun Rocky Bird Hill
Croftnacreich Croit na Chrithich The Aspen Hut
Crown Crùn Crown
Croy Chrothaigh Hard Place
Culcabock Cùil na Càbaig Back of the Tillage Land
Culduthel Cuil Daothail Quiet northern spot
Culloden Cùil Lodair Nook of the Marsh
Dalcross Dealgros Prickle Point
Dalneigh Dail an Eich Field of the Horse
Dalmagarry Dail Mac Gearraidh The Meadow of Garry's son
Dell Dail MhicEachainn MacEachen's Meadow
Diriebught Tìr nam Bochd Land of the Poor
Dochfour Dabhach Phùir Davoch of Pasture Land
Dochgarroch Dabhach Gairbheach Rough Davoch
Dores Dubhras Black Wood
Drumdevan Druim Dìomhain The Idle Ridge
Drummond An Druimein The Ridge
Drumossie Druim Athaisidh Ridge of the Great Meadow
Essich Easaich Place of the Stream
Inshes Na h-Innseagan The Meadows
Inverness Inbhir Nis Mouth of the River Ness
Kessock Ceasaig (Saint) Ceasaig
Kilmuir Cille Mhoire Mary's Church
Kilvean Cill Bheathain Church of St.Bain
Kinmylies Ceann a' Mhìlidh The Warrior's Head
Lairgmore Luirg Mór Big slope
Leachkin Leacainn Broad Hillside
Loch Ness Loch Nis Headlands Lake
Lochardil Loch Àrdail The Church Lake
Merkinch Marc Innis The Horse Meadow
Millburn Allt a'Mhuilinn The Mill River
Muckovie Mucamhaigh The Pig Field
Raigmore Rathaig Mhòir Big Fort
Resaurie Ruigh Samhraidh Summer Slope
Scaniport Sganaphort Ferry by the Crack
Scorguie Sgurr Gaoithe The Windy Hill
Slackbuie An Slag Buidhe The Yellow Hollow
Smithton Baile a' Ghobhainn Smiths' Town
Tomatin Tom Aitinn Hill of the Juniper
Tomnahurich Tom na h-Iubhraich Hill of the Yew Trees
Torvean Tòrr Bheathain MacBean's Hill

Several springs which were traditionally thought to have healing qualities exist around Inverness. Fuaran Dearg, which translates as the "red spring" is a chalybeate spring located near Dochgarroch. Fuaran a' Chladaich (The Spring on the Beach) near Bunchrew was once accessed by a causeweay from the shore, although submerged at high tide it continues to bubble and was traditionally known for treating cholera. Fuaran Allt an Ionnlaid (Well of the Washing Burn) at Clachnaharry, where the Marquis of Montrose was allowed to drink while on his way from his capture in Sutherland to his execution in Edinburgh, was known for treating skin conditions. Also at Clachnaharry, Fuaran Priseag (The Precious Well) was said to have been blessed by Saint Kessock and could treat weak and sore eyes, as well as expelling evil and shielding curses if a silver coin was offered. Tobar na h-Oige (Well of the Young) is located near Culloden and was known for curing all ailments. Fuaran a' Chragan Bhreag (Well of the Speckled Rock) is located near Craig Dundain and Fuaran na Capaich (The Keppoch Well) is located near Culloden.[27] Although a Gaelic name itself, Craig Phadraig is alternatively known as Làrach an Taigh Mhóir, or "the place of the Great house.[28] "Several Gaelic place names are now largely obsolete due to the feature being removed or forgotten. Drochaid an Easain Duibh (Bridge by the Small Dark Waterfall), referred to in the tale Aonghas Mòr Thom na h-Iubhraich agus na Sìthichean (Great Angus of Tomnahurich and the Faries) has not yet been located within Inverness and Slag nam Mèirleach (meaning Robbers' hollow), adjacent to Doors Road in Holm is no longer in use. Until the late 19th century, four mussel beds existed on the delta mouth of the River Ness: 'Scalp Phàdraig Mhòir' (Scalp of Big Patrick), 'Rònach' (Place of the Seals) 'Cridhe an Uisge' (The Water Heart) and 'Scalp nan Caorach' (Scalp of the Sheep) – these mussel beds were all removed to allow better access for fishing boats and ships.[29]

Allt Muineach (The Thicket River) now runs underground between Culcabock Roundabout and Millburn Roundabout. An Loch Gorm (The Turquoise Loch), a small sea loch which was situated beside Morrisons supermarket, was filled in during the 19th century and lives on only in the name of Lochgorm Warehouse. Abban Street stems from the word àban, a word of local Gaelic dialect meaning a small channel of water.

Many prominent points around Inverness retain fully Gaelic names.

Beinn Bhuidhe Bheag – Little Yellow Hill
Beinn Uan – Lamb Hill
Cnoc na Mòine – The Peat Hill
Cnoc na Gaoithe – The Hill of the Wind
Cnoc an t-Seòmair – The Hill of the Room
Creag Liath – Grey Crag
Creag nan Sidhean – The Crag of the Fairies
Doire Mhòr – Great Oakwood
Carn a' Bhodaich – The Old Man's Cairn
Meall Mòr – Great Hill

In the colonial period, a Gaelic speaking settlement named New Inverness was established in McIntosh County, Georgia, by settlers from in and around Inverness. The name was also given by expatriates to settlements in Quebec, Nova Scotia, Montana, Florida, Illinois, and California. The name Inverness is also given to a feature on Miranda, a moon of the planet Uranus, as well as a 2637 m tall mountain in British Columbia, Canada.[30] Inverness is also known by its nicknames Inversnecky or The Sneck, with its inhabitants traditionally known as "Clann Na Cloiche" ("Children of the Stone" in Gaelic) owing to the importance of the Clach Na Cudainn stone to the city's history.
Population
Year Greater Inverness Inverness
2012 59,910[31] 46,870[32]
2010 57,960[33] 45,050[34]
2008 56,660[35] 44,220[36]
2006 54,070[37] 42,400[38]
2004 52,530[39] 40,880[40]
2003 51,610[41] 40,470[42]
2001 46,944[43] 40,949[44]
1991 44,903[45] 40,918[46]
1981 43,246 40,011
1971 34,839
1961 29,774
1951 28,107
1881 17,365
1871 14,469
1861 12,509
1841 9,663
1831 14,324
1821 12,264
1811 10,750
1801 8,732
1791 7,930

The National Records of Scotland define Inverness as the urban area west of the A9. To produce a greater Inverness figure including the villages of Balloch, Culloden, Smithton, and Westhill it is necessary to aggregate NRS figures for each locality.[47]
Geography

Inverness is situated at the mouth of the River Ness (which flows from nearby Loch Ness) and at the southwestern extremity of the Moray Firth. The city lies at the end of the Great Glen with Loch Ness, Loch Ashie and Loch Duntelchaig to the west. Inverness's Caledonian Canal also runs through the Great Glen connecting Loch Ness, Loch Oich, and Loch Lochy.

The Ness Islands, a publicly owned park, consist of two wooded islands connected by footbridges and has been used as a place of recreation since the 1840s.[48] Craig Phadraig, once an ancient Gaelic and Pictish hillfort is a 240 m[49] hill which offers hikes on a clear pathway through the wooded terrain.

Inverness lies on the Great Glen Fault. The last earthquake to affect Inverness occurred in 1934.[50]
Panorama of Inverness looking downstream to the Greig St Bridge with Huntly Street (left), the River Ness and Bank Street (right)
Location
Destinations from Inverness
Dingwall, Ullapool Munlochy, Maryburgh, Bonar Bridge, Wick, Thurso Nairn, Balintore, Forres, Elgin
Beauly, Muir of Ord Keith, Turriff, Peterhead
Inverness
Drumnadrochit, Fort Augustus, Fort William Balnafoich, Aviemore, Dalwhinnie, Perth Carrbridge, Grantown-on-Spey, Aberdeen, Dundee
Climate

In common with Scotland, Inverness has an oceanic climate. Its sheltered location makes it one of the driest areas in Scotland. In terms of snowfall Inverness sees around 18.3 days of falling snow per year and the record accumulation of snowfall was 1 foot 2 inches in January 2010. The climate here is much colder than south-eastern Britain. The highest temperature recorded is 29.7 °C in July 2006. Typically the warmest day should rise to 25.4 °C with a total of 2 days reaching or exceeding 25.1 °C. The lowest temperature recorded is -18.7 °C in January 2010. Typically the coldest night should fall to -10.6 °C.[51] Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[52]
[hide]Climate data for Inverness (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.9
(53.4) 12.7
(54.9) 19.4
(66.9) 23.7
(74.7) 26.6
(79.9) 28.4
(83.1) 29.7
(85.5) 29.1
(84.4) 25.8
(78.4) 20.3
(68.5) 15.4
(59.7) 11.4
(52.5) 29.8
(85.6)
Average high °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4) 7.3
(45.1) 9.3
(48.7) 11.6
(52.9) 14.6
(58.3) 16.9
(62.4) 18.9
(66) 18.6
(65.5) 16.1
(61) 12.6
(54.7) 9.3
(48.7) 7.0
(44.6) 12.5
(54.5)
Average low °C (°F) 1.1
(34) 1.2
(34.2) 2.4
(36.3) 4.0
(39.2) 6.4
(43.5) 9.3
(48.7) 11.4
(52.5) 11.2
(52.2) 8.9
(48) 6.0
(42.Cool 3.5
(38.3) 1.2
(34.2) 5.6
(42.1)
Record low °C (°F) −18.3
(−0.9) −17.2
(1) −12.8
(9) −6.3
(20.7) −4.1
(24.6) −1.2
(29.Cool 2.4
(36.3) 1.2
(34.2) 0.2
(32.4) −4.5
(23.9) −11.7
(10.9) −16.8
(1.Cool −18.7
(−1.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 76.9
(3.028) 58.6
(2.307) 57.6
(2.268) 39.4
(1.551) 51.6
(2.031) 59.3
(2.335) 53.4
(2.102) 59.5
(2.343) 67.2
(2.646) 78.1
(3.075) 66.2
(2.606) 65.0
(2.559) 732.8
(28.851)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 14 11 14 9 11 11 10 12 12 13 13 13 143
Mean monthly sunshine hours 38.8 72.7 104.5 135.5 176.8 143.1 140.0 133.9 113.2 84.2 49.7 27.8 1,220.1
Source: MetOffice[53]
Health
Main article: Raigmore Hospital

Raigmore is the main hospital in Inverness and the entire Highland authority.[54] The present hospital opened in 1970, replacing wartime wards dating from 1941.[55]

Raigmore is also a teaching hospital catering for both the Universities of Aberdeen and Stirling. A new Centre for Health Science is located behind Raigmore Hospital. This is funded by Highlands and Islands Enterprise, the Scottish Executive and Johnson & Johnson. Phase I of this opened in early 2007, with phase II and phase III housing The Diabetes Institute opening in 2009. The University of Stirling moved its nursing and midwifery teaching operations from Raigmore Hospital to the CfHS. The UHI also has strong links with the centre through its Faculty of Health.
Economy

Most of the traditional industries such as distilling have been replaced by high-tech businesses, such as the design and manufacture of diabetes diagnostic kits. Highlands and Islands Enterprise has principally funded the Centre for Health Science to attracting more businesses in the medical and medical devices business to the area.[56] Inverness is home to Scottish Natural Heritage following that body's relocation from Edinburgh under the auspices of the Scottish Government's decentralisation strategy. SNH provides a large number of jobs in the area.
Inverness High Street heading towards Church Street
A view of Inverness harbour in 1999.

Inverness City Centre lies on the east bank of the river and is linked to the west side of the town by three road bridges – Ness Bridge, Friars Bridge and the Black (or Waterloo) Bridge – and by one of the town's suspension foot bridges, the Grieg Street Bridge.[57] The traditional city centre was a triangle bounded by High Street, Church Street and Academy Street, within which Union Street and Queensgate are cross streets parallel to High Street. Between Union Street and Queensgate is the Victorian Market, which contains a large number of small shops.[58] The main Inverness railway station is almost directly opposite the Academy Street entrance to the Market. From the 1970s, the Eastgate Shopping Centre was developed to the east of High Street, with a substantial extension being completed in 2003.
Education

The city has a number of different education providers. Inverness is catered for by about a dozen primary schools including Inverness Gaelic Primary School, a specialised institution situated at Slackbuie. There are 5 secondary schools: Inverness High School, Inverness Royal Academy, Charleston Academy, Millburn Academy and Culloden Academy. Additionally there is Inverness College which offers further and higher education courses to those of school leaving age and above. The City also has a new Centre for Health Sciences adjacent to Raigmore Hospital.
University of the Highlands and Islands

Inverness College is situated in the city and is a key part of the University of the Highlands and Islands, a federation of 15 colleges and research institutions in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland delivering higher education.

Plans for a new Business R&D and academic campus have been in place for some time with the college at its current Longman site relocation to a new development at the new Inverness Campus at Beechwood Farm.

The planning application for phase 1 of a new campus, lodged by Highlands and Islands Enterprise (HIE) was passed by The Highland Council in May 2010. The original outline planning application for the entire landholding submitted early 2009 remains live. This application forms a vision for the development over the next thirty years. The application includes:

Academic buildings – up to 70,480 m2
Business and incubation units – up to 49,500 m2
Indoor sports complex – up to 9,000 m2
Student and other short term residences – 44,950 m2
Associated landscape, open space, outdoor recreation, infrastructure and services necessary to support the development phases
Up to 200 residential units
A social enterprise-run hotel[59][60]

The 80-hectare (200-acre) campus at Beechwood, just off the A9 south of Inverness, is considered to be one of the most important developments for the region over the next 20 years. The principal of UHI, James Fraser, said: “This is a flagship development which will provide Inverness with a university campus and vibrant student life. It will have a major impact on the city and on the Highlands and Islands. UHI is a partnership of colleges and research centres throughout the region, and the development of any one partner brings strength to the whole institution."[61]

It is estimated that the new campus would contribute more than £50m to the economy of the Highlands because it could attract innovative commercial businesses interested in research and development, while increasing the number of students who study within the city by around 3,000.[62]
Transport

Inverness is linked to the Black Isle across the Moray Firth by the Kessock Bridge. It has a railway station[63] with Abellio ScotRail services to Perth, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Thurso, Wick and Kyle of Lochlash. Inverness is connected to London Euston by the Caledonian Sleeper, which departs six times a week and by the Virgin Trains East Coast operated Highland Chieftain to London King's Cross which runs daily.

Inverness Airport[64] is located 15 km east of the city and has scheduled flights to airports across the UK including London, Manchester, Belfast and the islands to the north and west of Scotland. Flybe operate flights to Belfast, Birmingham, Manchester and Dublin. Loganair, Flybe's franchise partner, operate Saab 340 aircraft to Benbecula, Kirkwall, Stornoway and Sumburgh. EasyJet operate Airbus aircraft to London Gatwick three times per day, Luton twice a day and Bristol. British Airways daily to London Heathrow, KLM daily to Amsterdam.

Three trunk roads (the A9, A82 and A96) provide access to Aberdeen, Perth, Elgin, Wick, Thurso, Edinburgh and Glasgow.
A picture of a Stagecoach Group bus in Inverness, 1999.

Stagecoach Highlands is the division of the Stagecoach Group which covers most of the former Rapson Group operations after the take-over by Stagecoach. It covers the following depots of the Stagecoach Group.

Fort William (Ardgour Road, Caol) (t/a Stagecoach in Lochaber)
Kirkwall (Scott's Road Hatston Industrial Estate) (t/a Stagecoach in Orkney)
Portree (Park Road) (t/a Stagecoach in Skye)
Thurso (Janet Street) (t/a Stagecoach in Caithness)

There are various outstations over the division area due to the rural nature of the area covered.

The operation from Aviemore depot comes under the East Scotland division as it trades as Stagecoach in Inverness.
Inverness bus station
Inverness bus station

Inverness bus station is situated at Farraline Park and can be accessed from Academy Street and Margaret Street. The bus station is managed by the Highland Council and is a short walk away from the Inverness railway station and the main shopping area.

Permission was granted to demolish the existing bus station in 2000. It was then replaced with a new terminal building in the early 2000s.

The bus station's main operators include Stagecoach in Inverness and Stagecoach in Lochaber. Buses operate from the bus station around the town of Inverness and to Inverness Airport and to places as far afield as Fort William, Ullapool, Thurso and Aberdeen.

Megabus and Scottish Citylink operate a regular coach service to the Scotland's capital Edinburgh with connections to Glasgow at Perth.

National Express Coaches operate an overnight service (588) from Inverness to London (Victoria) taking 12 hours 35 minutes.
Inverness Trunk Road Link

Plans are in place to convert the A96 between Inverness and Nairn to a dual carriageway and to construct a southern bypass that would link the A9, A82 and A96 together involving crossings of the Caledonian Canal and the River Ness in the Torvean area, southwest of the town.[65]

The bypass, known as the Inverness Trunk Road Link (TRL), is aimed at resolving Inverness’s transport problems and has been split into two separate projects, the east and west sections. The east section will bypass Inshes Roundabout, a notorious traffic bottleneck, using a new road linking the existing Southern Distributor with the A9 and the A96, both via grade separated interchanges. This proposed new link road would bypass Inshes roundabout, as stated before, and separate strategic traffic from local traffic as well as accommodating proposals for new development at the West Seafield Retail and Business Park and also a new UHI campus.

At the west end, two options for crossing the river and canal were developed. One involving a high level vertical opening bridge which will allow the majority of canal traffic to pass under without the need for opening. The other involved a bridge over the river and an aqueduct under the canal. Both of these designs are technically complex and were considered in detail along by the key stakeholders involved in the project. Ultimately it was decided that a bridge over the river and a tunnel under the canal were the best option, allow more expensive.[66]

In late 2008 the controversial decision by the Scottish Government not to include the full Inverness bypass in its transport plan for the next 20 years was made. The government's Strategic Transport Projects Review did include the eastern section of the route, which will see the A9 at Inshes linked to the A96.

But the absence of the TRL's western section, which would include a permanent crossing over the Caledonian Canal and River Ness, sparked dismay among several Highland councillors and business leaders in Inverness who feel the bypass is vital for the city's future economic growth.[67]
Upgrading of the A9 South
Evening at Kessock Bridge

In late 2008 the Scottish Government's transport plan for the next 20 years was announced. It brings forward planned improvements to the A9 in an attempt to stimulate the economy and protect jobs.

Work costing a total of £8.5 million was undertaken at Moy, Carrbridge and Bankfoot. Northbound overtaking lanes were created and the carriageway was reconstructed at both Moy and Carrbridge. Junction improvements were also made at Moy.

In November 2011 the Scottish Government announced that it will upgrade the entire road from Perth to Inverness to dual carriageway. Work on this project is expected to start in 2015 is scheduled to be completed in 2025, at a cost of £3 billion.[68]

In July 2013, the Scottish Government announced a plan to install average speed cameras on the A9 between Perth and Inverness. This has been undertaken with an aim to reduce accidents and fatalities on the road, and will be the second permanent average speed camera scheme in Scotland.[69]
Port of Inverness

The Port of Inverness is located at the mouth of the River Ness and has four quays and receives over 300 vessels a year.
Government
Local government
See also: Politics of the Highland council area

Inverness was an autonomous royal burgh, and county town for the county of Inverness (also known as Inverness-shire) until 1975, when local government counties and burghs were abolished, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, in favour of two-tier regions and districts and unitary islands council areas. The royal burgh was then absorbed into a new district of Inverness, which was one of eight districts within the Highland region. The new district combined in one area the royal burgh, the Inverness district of the county and the Aird district of the county. The rest of the county was divided between other new districts within the Highland region and the Western Isles. Therefore, although much larger than the royal burgh, the new Inverness district was much smaller than the county.

In 1996, under the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994,[70] the districts were abolished and the region became a unitary council area. The new unitary Highland Council, however, adopted the areas of the former districts as council management areas, and created area committees to represent each. The Inverness committee represented 23 out of the 80 Highland Council wards, with each ward electing one councillor by the first past the post system of election. Management area and committee area boundaries later became disconnected as a result of changes to ward boundaries in 1999. Ward boundaries changed again in 2007, and the council management areas were replaced with three new corporate management areas.

Ward boundary changes in 2007, under the Local Governance (Scotland) Act 2004,[71] created 22 new Highland Council wards, each electing three or four councillors by the single transferable vote system of election, a system designed to produce a form of proportional representation. The total number of councillors remaining the same. Also, the Inverness management area was merged into the new Inverness, Nairn and Badenoch and Strathspey corporate management area, covering nine of the new wards and electing 34 of the 80 councillors. As well as the Inverness area, the new area includes the former Nairn management area and the former Badenoch and Strathspey management area. The corporate area name is also that of a constituency, but boundaries are different.

Within the corporate area there is a city management area covering seven of the nine wards, the Aird and Loch Ness ward, the Culloden and Ardersier ward, the Inverness Central ward, the Inverness Millburn ward, the Inverness Ness-side ward, the Inverness South ward and the Inverness West ward. The Nairn ward and the Badenoch and Strathspey ward complete the corporate area. Wards in the city management area are to be represented on a city committee as well as corporate area committees.
Distribution of Highland Council seats by party in Inverness Party Seats
Scottish National Party 7
Liberal Democrats 6
Independent 5
Labour Party 4


City status

In 2000 city status was granted to the Town of Inverness, and letters patent were taken into the possession of the Highland Council by the convener of the Inverness area committee.[72] These letters patent, which were sealed in March 2000 and are held by Inverness Museum and Art Gallery,[73] create a city of Inverness, but do not refer to anywhere with defined boundaries, except that Town of Inverness may be taken as a reference to the burgh of Inverness. As a local government area the burgh was abolished 26 years earlier, in 1975, and so was the county of Inverness for which the burgh was the county town. Nor do they refer to the former district or to the royal burgh.

The Highland area was created as a two-tier local government region in 1975, and became a unitary local government area in 1996. The region consisted of eight districts, of which one was called Inverness. The districts were all merged into the unitary area. As the new local government authority, the Highland Council then adopted the areas of the districts as council management areas. The management areas were abolished in 2007, in favour of three new corporate management areas. The council has defined a large part of the Inverness, Nairn and Badenoch and Strathspey corporate area as the Inverness city management area.[74] This council-defined city area includes Loch Ness and numerous towns and villages apart from the former burgh of Inverness.

In January 2008 a petition to matriculate armorial bearings for the City of Inverness was refused by Lord Lyon King of Arms on the grounds that there is no legal persona to which arms can be granted.[75]
Parliamentary representation

There are three existing parliamentary constituencies with Inverness as an element in their names:

One county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster), created in 2005:
Inverness, Nairn, Badenoch and Strathspey, currently represented by Scottish National Party (SNP) Member of Parliament (MP) Drew Hendry.
One constituency of the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood), created in 2011:
Inverness and Nairn, currently represented by Scottish National Party Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) Fergus Ewing[76]

These existing constituencies are effectively subdivisions of the Highland council area, but boundaries for Westminster elections are now very different from those for Holyrood elections. The Holyrood constituencies are also subdivisions of the Highlands and Islands electoral region.

Historically there have been six Westminster constituencies:

One burgh constituency:
Inverness Burghs, 1708 to 1918
Five county constituencies:
Inverness-shire, 1708 to 1918
Inverness, 1918 to 1983
Inverness, Nairn and Lochaber, 1983 to 1997
Inverness East, Nairn and Lochaber, 1997 to 2005
Ross, Skye and Inverness West, 1997 to 2005

Inverness Burghs was a district of burghs constituency, covering the parliamentary burghs of Inverness, Fortrose, Forres and Nairn. Inverness-shire covered, at least nominally, the county of Inverness minus the Inverness parliamentary burgh. As created in 1918, Inverness covered the county minus Outer Hebridean areas, which were merged into the Western Isles constituency. The Inverness constituency included the former parliamentary burgh of Inverness. As created in 1983, Inverness, Nairn and Lochaber was one of three constituencies covering the Highland region, which had been created in 1975. As first used in 1997, the Inverness East, Nairn and Lochaber, and Ross, Skye and Inverness West constituencies were effectively two of three constituencies covering the Highland unitary council area, which had been created in 1996.
International relations
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Scotland
Twin towns — Sister cities

Germany Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany
France La Baule-Escoublac, Pays de la Loire, France[77]
France Saint-Valery-en-Caux, Normandy, France

Culture and sports

Inverness is an important centre for bagpipe players and lovers, since every September the city hosts the Northern Meeting. The Inverness cape, a garment worn in the rain by pipers the world over, is not necessarily made in Inverness.

Another major event in calendar is the annual City of Inverness Highland Games. The event can trace its roots back to one of the first Highland Games staged in the modern era; the True Highland Games which was staged in 1822 by members of the Northern Meeting Society. In 1864 the Northern Meeting Society built the world's first Highland Games stadium, the Northern Meeting Park. The last Northern Meeting Highland Games was staged in 1938 and following the second world war, responsibility for the organisation of the annual event passed to the Town Council who moved the event to Bught Park in 1948. In 2006 Inverness hosted Scotland's biggest ever Highland Games over two days in July, featuring the Masters' World Championships, the showcase event for heavies aged over 40 years. 2006 was the first year that the Masters' World Championships had been held outside the United States, and it attracted many top heavies from around the world to the Inverness area. The Masters World Championships returned in 2009 when it was staged as part of the Homecoming celebrations. In 2010, the City of Inverness Highland Games returned to Northern Meeting Park where it remains to this day.

The main theatre in Inverness is called Eden Court Theatre. Actress Karen Gillan is the ambassador for Theatre Art Education. Inverness has gained notoriety as well for being featured in the "Outlander" novel series by author Diana Gabaldon.

Inverness is home to two summer music festivals, Rockness and the Tartan Heart Festival, that bring a variety of different music to the town.

BFBS Radio broadcasts on 87.7FM as part of its UK Bases network.
Caledonian Stadium, home of Inverness Caledonian Thistle

The city is home to four football clubs. Inverness Caledonian Thistle was formed in 1994 from the merger of two Highland League clubs, Caledonian and Inverness Thistle. "Caley Thistle" of the Scottish Premiership plays at the Tulloch Caledonian Stadium. The town's second football club, Clachnacuddin, plays in the Highland League. Inverness Citadel was another popular side which became defunct, but had its name revived. The third football side is Inverness City who play in the North Region Juniors and were formed in 2006. Inverness Athletic became the fourth, joining the North Caledonian Football League in 2016.

Highland RFC is the local rugby union club that competes regularly in the Caledonia Regional League Division One.

Highland HC is the local hockey team, it consists of two men's teams, two ladies teams and a junior team.[78] with both Men's & Ladies' 1st teams in Scottish National Division 2. The Men's 1st team successfully gained promotion from Scottish National Division 3 in 2011.[79]

Inverness Blitz is a charity that promotes the development of American football in Inverness and the surrounding area.[80] Bught Park, located in the centre of Inverness is the finishing point of the annual Loch Ness Marathon and home of Inverness Shinty Club.

In 2011, Inverness hosted professional golf with the Scottish Open on the European Tour, played at Castle Stuart the week before The Open Championship.

Cricket is also played in Inverness, with both Highland CC and Northern Counties playing in the North of Scotland Cricket Association League and 7 welfare league teams playing midweek cricket at Fraser Park. Both teams have been very successful over the years.

Stock car racing was staged in Inverness circa 1973.

Inverness has a mixed Basketball Team, the Inverness Giants, who play exhibition games against local teams throughout the North and Islands

Inverness Botanic Gardens is located in Bught Park a few minutes walk from the west bank of the River Ness near to the Ness Islands.[81]

In 2007, the city hosted Highland 2007, a celebration of the culture of the Highlands, and will also host the World Highland Games Heavy Championships (21 & 22 July) and European Pipe Band Championships (28 July).[82] 2008 saw the first Hi-Ex (Highlands International Comics Expo), held at the Eden Court Theatre.[83][84]

Inverness is the location of Macbeth's castle in Shakespeare's play.
Gaelic in Inverness
The use of preaspiration in different Scottish Gaelic dialects throughout the Highlands, from 1 (strong) to 6 (absent). Preaspiration was used in the dialect of Inverness Gaelic and is still evident in both the Gaelic and English spoken in Inverness today.

Historically, Inverness had a solidly Gaelic speaking population, with the majority of the population having Gaelic as their first language. From approximately the end of the 19th century, following the 1872 Education Act, Inverness suffered a decline in the number of Gaelic speakers in line with the rest of the once Gaidhealtachd / Scottish Highlands. Despite the local dialect of Scottish Gaelic gradually falling out of use (although it continued to affect local English language dialect), the language is still spoken in other dialects and standardised forms. By the end of the 19th century, some rural areas to the south east of Inverness still had completely Gaelic speaking populations, such as Strath Dearn where almost 100% of the population were still Gaelic speaking.

1677: Inverness was described as "overwhelmingly" Gaelic speaking by the traveller Thomas Kirk.

1704: Close to 100% of the population was fluent in Gaelic, with 57% of the city's population speaking only Gaelic and the remaining 43% also having some understanding of the Scots language. Edward Lhuyd published major work on Inverness Gaelic and after collecting data from between 1699 and 1700, his findings showed a distinct dialect in the area.[85] The clear dialect of Inverness Gaelic was held in high regard by speakers of other forms, such as those from Lewis, Sutherland and Ross.[86] Gaelic remained the principal language of Invernessians for the rest of the 18th century, despite growing pressure from outwith the Highlands in both political and social contexts.

1798: Thomas Garnett (Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry in the Royal Institution of Great Britain) observed that Inverness had become largely bilingual with Invernessians using Gaelic as the language of the home but English as the language of foreign trade – however, the older generation at the time generally only had the Gaelic. Speaking of those in the countryside immediately surrounding Inverness, Garnett stated that although in Inverness both Gaelic and English “are spoken promiscuously...the language of the country people is Gaelic.”

1828: John Wood praised the standard of both the Gaelic and English spoken in Inverness stating that both languages were spoken with "utmost purity." He noted that children would casually flit between the two languages while playing, asking questions in Gaelic while receiving answers in English and vice versa.

1882: The Celtic Magazine, published in Inverness, complained that enumerators of the 1881 census who assessed whether families were Gaelic speaking, English speaking or both, had supplied false information. The magazine wrote that "whole families .... scarcely any member of whom can express the commonest idea intelligently in English – who are in every sense Gaelic-speaking people only – were returned by the enumerators as English-speaking."

1901: Inhabitants of Inverness voiced regret at the very swift decay of the native language in the short space of twenty years following a complete absence of bilingual education and disregard for Gaelic.[87]

For its size, Inverness today still has a relatively high density of Gaelic speakers and a relatively lively Gaelic scene, making it one of the centres of the Scottish Gaelic Renaissance. According to the 2011 census, 4.8% of residents of greater Inverness over age 3 speak Gaelic compared to 1.1% nationally. At 2,800 Gaelic speakers, only Greater Glasgow and Edinburgh have a higher absolute total.[88] The number of Gaelic speakers has fluctuated over the last century. In 1881, the census reported 4,047 Gaelic speakers in Inverness (23.3% of the population) which by 1891 had risen to 6,356 speakers (30.47%).[89] By 1901 this figure had dropped to 5,072 speakers (23.88%) of the population, from which it continued to drop to present day numbers through emigration and language shift.[89] Scottish Gaelic is slowly re-appearing in the linguistic landscape, appearing on some signs around Inverness. Bun-sgoil Ghàidhlig Inbhir Nis, which opened in August 2007 offering primary school education through the medium of Gaelic, is nearing full capacity and was extended to allow for more pupils in August 2010.[90] Bòrd na Gàidhlig, an organisation responsible for supporting and promoting the use of Scottish Gaelic, has its main office in Inverness.[91] Other Gaelic related groups include the Inverness Gaelic Choir which has existed for over 70 years.[92] Inverness also hosted the Royal National Mòd in 2014, a festival celebrating Gaelic culture.[93]
Buildings
St. Andrew's Cathedral on the banks of the River Ness

Important buildings in Inverness include Inverness Castle, and various churches.

The castle was built in 1835 on the site of its medieval predecessor. It is now a sheriff court.

Inverness Cathedral, dedicated to St Andrew, is a cathedral of the Scottish Episcopal Church and seat of the ordinary of the Diocese of Moray, Ross and Caithness. The cathedral has a curiously square-topped look to its spires, as funds ran out before they could be completed.

The oldest church is the Old High Church,[94] on St Michael's Mount by the riverside, a site perhaps used for worship since Celtic times. The church tower dates from mediaeval times, making it the oldest surviving building in Inverness. It is used by the Church of Scotland congregation of Old High St Stephen's, Inverness,[95] and it is the venue for the annual Kirking of the Council, which is attended by local councillors.

There is no Catholic cathedral in the area as the Diocese's cathedral (St Mary) is at Aberdeen, the seat of the Diocese of Aberdeen. The Catholic population is served by two parish churches: St Mary's Church, founded in 1837, is the older of the two and the first Catholic church founded in Inverness since the Reformation.[96] St Ninian's was built during the 1960s and 1970s.[97]

Inverness College is the hub campus for the UHI Millennium Institute.[98]

Porterfield Prison, officially HMP Inverness, serves the courts of the Highlands, Western Isles, Orkney Isles and Moray, providing secure custody for all remand prisoners and short term adult prisoners, both male and female (segregated).[99]
Long-Distance Walking Hub

Inverness is connected to three long-distance footpaths:

The Great Glen Way - connects to Fort William along the Great Glen
The John o' Groats Trail - connects to John o' Groats along the coast
The East Highland Trail - connects to Blair Atholl and eventually Stirling through the Cairngorms

Towns and villages

Apart from the former burgh of Inverness, the Highland Council's city management area includes Ardersier, Beauly, Culloden, Balloch, Drumnadrochit, Fort Augustus, Invermoriston, Smithton, Tomatin, Kirkhill and Kiltarlity.
Shinty

Shinty is an integral part of the Highlands and Islands. As the capital of the Highlands, Inverness often hosts a wealth of Shinty finals such as the Camanachd Cup Final (the pinnacle of Shinty) as well as the international game of Shinty and Irish hurling. Despite Inverness Shinty Club not being particularly successful in recent years, some of the towns and villages that surround the city have been, such as Kiltarlity who are the home of Lovat Shinty Club (recent winners of the MacTavish Cup 2013) and Glen Urquhart.
Notable people
Main category: People from Inverness
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Charlie Christie – Footballer; career included playing for Celtic and Inverness Caledonian Thistle
Charles Fraser Mackintosh (Teàrlach Friseal Mac An Toisich) – lawyer, author and politician. Born and raised in Inverness and represented the Highlands in Westminster.[100]
Yvette Cooper – Work and Pensions Secretary in the Brown Cabinet,[clarification needed] was born in Inverness
Don Cowie – Footballer, currently playing for Heart of Midlothian
James Alexander Forbes – British Vice-Consul to Mexican California as well as the first British Consul to the American state of California
Karen Gillan – Actress, best known as Amy Pond, the Doctor's Companion in Doctor Who
Elspet Gray – Actress
Derry Irvine – Former Lord Chancellor (under Tony Blair); was born in Inverness
Malcolm Jones – Musician; guitar player for Runrig
Charles Kennedy – Former leader of the Liberal Democrats; was born in Inverness
Kevin MacDonald – Former footballer who played for Liverpool FC, and former caretaker first team coach at Aston Villa
John A. Mackay – Presbyterian theologian, missionary, and educator
Mary Macpherson – (Màiri Nic a' Phearsain) poet and political activist, "Great Mairi of the Songs" raised her children in Inverness, where she wrote much of her work.[101]
John McGinlay – Former footballer who played as a striker, most notably for Bolton Wanderers
Ethel Moir - Nursing orderly with Scottish Women's Hospitals for Foreign Service
Ali Smith – Author; born in Inverness in 1962
Mr Egg – MacAcidhouse musician; born in Inverness on 7 January 1959
Major General Douglas Wimberley—British Army officer, born in Inverness 16 August 1896, service in World War I and World War II

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Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
External links
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Inverness.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Inverness.

Inverness Botanic Gardens
The Inverness Courier
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Wildlife Watchiing in Inverness Sunday Post Travel, 15 June 2013

Inverness Castle looking over the River Ness

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